German Shepherd Standard FCI
German Shepherd Standard FCI No. 166 (08/07/1996)
PUBLICATION DATE PREVIOUS STANDARD
Universal service dog (shepherd, guard, etc.)
Group 1. Shepherd dogs and cattle dogs (excluding Swiss shepherd dogs)
With performance tests.
In the photo: German shepherd
SUMMARY OF THE HISTORICAL SUMMARY: According to an official decision, the German Shepherd Dog Union (Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde) with a seat in Augsburg, as a member of the German Kennel Club (Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen eV, VDH) and as a recognized association German shepherd dog. This standard was originally drafted at the first meeting of the Union in Frankfurt on September 20, 1899 at the proposal of A. Meyer and von Stephanitz. Amendments to the standard were made at the 6th meeting of members on July 28, 1901, at the 23rd meeting in Cologne on September 17, 1909, at the meeting of the Council of Leaders and the Advisory Committee in Wiesbaden (Germany) on September 5, 1930, at the meeting March 25, 1961. The standard was amended and adopted by the World German Shepherd Union (Weltunion für Deutsche Schaferhunde, WUSV) on August 30, 1976 and revised and streamlined following the decision of the Council of Leaders and the Advisory Committee on March 23-24, 1991. .
The German Shepherd, whose planned breeding began in 1899 after the formation of the German Shepherd Union, was originally built on the breeding of then available shepherd dogs in Central and Southern Germany with the ultimate goal of creating a dog that is highly suitable for the services most in demand in practice. To achieve this, the breed standard for the German Shepherd has been improved, emphasizing the correct anatomical structure and, in particular, a healthy temperament and good character.
GENERAL APPEARANCE: A medium-sized German shepherd, slightly stretched, strong and muscular, with a rough skeleton and strong build.
BEHAVIOR AND TEMPERAMENT: The German shepherd must be balanced, reasonable (with strong nerves), self-confident, generally calm (excluding provocation) and good temper, as well as attentive and easily trained. She must have courage, militancy and stamina to match her appointment as a service dog: companion, watchman, shepherd, etc.
HEAD: Wedge-shaped and proportional to growth, i.e. its length is approximately 40% of the height at the withers, without coarseness and not too elongated. Dry in general, moderately broad between ears. The forehead when viewed from the front and side is only slightly rounded, the median groove is absent or only slightly marked.
The ratio of the cranial to facial is 50% to 50%. The width of the cranial part is approximately equal to its length. When viewed from above, the cranium evenly tapers from the ears to the back of the nose and gradually becomes beveled into a wedge-shaped forceps, with a gradual, not too sharp transition from the forehead to the muzzle. The upper and lower jaws are highly developed. The back of the nose is straight, any deflection or hump is not desirable. Lips are dry, tight and dark in color.
Nose: Must be black.
TEETH: Must have strong and healthy full dentition (42 teeth according to the dentition). A German shepherd has a scissor bite, i.e. the incisors should be fitted to each other like scissors so that the incisors of the upper jaw overlap the incisors of the lower jaw in a scissor-like manner. A direct bite, overshot or undershot are defects, as are large gaps between the teeth (gaps). Equally wrong is the linear arrangement of the incisors in a straight line. The jaw bones must be strongly developed so that the teeth are firmly inserted into the alveoli.
EYES: Medium, almond-shaped, set in a slightly oblique section, not convex. Eye color should be as dark as possible.Bright eyes with a piercing gaze are not desirable, as this affects the expression of the dog.
EARS: In a German shepherd, medium-sized erect ears, which are held upright, are directed parallel (do not converge inward). They taper towards the ends, and the auricles are open forward. Semi-persistent or drooping ears are a defect. Ears laying back in motion or at rest are not a disadvantage.
NECK: The neck should be strong, muscular and without suspension. Its angle of inclination to the horizon is approximately 450.
BODY: The top line is solid, stretches from the base of the neck along a well-defined withers and along the back, set very slightly in an inclined position to the horizon, gradually turning into an inclined croup. The back is strong, strong, muscular. The loin is wide, strongly developed, muscular. The croup should be long, slightly sloping (about 230 to the horizon) and quietly merge with the base of the tail.
Chest: Moderately broad, sternum as long as possible, lower chest well developed. The depth of the chest should be 45 - 48% of the height at the withers. Ribs that are barrel-shaped or too flat are a defect.
TAIL: At least reaches the hock, however, no further than the middle of the metatarsus. On its underside, the coat is slightly longer, the tail is hanging down in a soft bend. When the dog is agitated or in motion, the tail rises and holds higher, but not above the horizontal line. Surgical correction is prohibited.
FRONT: When viewed from all sides, the front legs are straight and when viewed from the front are absolutely parallel. The shoulder blades and shoulder arms are equal in length, muscular and firmly attached to the body. The angle between the shoulder blade and the humerus is ideal 900but generally up to 1100.
Elbows should not be placed inward or turned outward, either at rest or in movement. When viewed from all sides, the forearms are straight and absolutely parallel to each other, dry and muscular. The metacarpus is approximately 1/3 of the length of the forearm, at an angle of 20 - 220 to him. Weak metacarpus (at an angle of more than 220) or sheer (at an angle less than 200) affect the working fitness of the dog, especially its endurance.
Forefeet: Rounded, in a lump, with arched fingers, the pads are strong, not cracked, claws are strong, dark in color.
HINDQUARTER: Posterior hind limbs slightly set apart when viewed from behind, they are parallel to each other. The thigh and lower leg are approximately the same length and form an angle of about 1200strong and muscular. The hocks are strong, stable. Metatarsus stands upright under the hocks.
Hind feet: Compact, slightly arched pads, hard and dark in color; nails strong, arched and also dark in color.
GAIT / MOVEMENT: German Shepherd is a trotting dog. The limbs should be so coordinated along the length and angles of the joints so that without a noticeable change in the top line, the hind legs can push the body forward, while the front legs are taken out at an equal distance. Any tendency to saberness reduces stability and endurance and, as a result, the ability to work. Correct body proportions and articulation angles lead to creeping sweeping movements that give the impression of moving forward effortlessly. A forward head and a raised tail lead to a uniform trot effortlessly, demonstrating a gently curved, continuous top line from the tips of the ears, along the neck and back to the tip of the tail.
SKIN: The skin is loose fitting, without any creases.
COAT: The correct coat of the German Shepherd is double (Stockhaar) with integumentary hair and undercoat. The integumentary hair should be as thick as possible, straight, coarse and tight to the body. On the head, the inner side of the ears, the front of the legs, paws and fingers, the hair is short on the neck, slightly longer and thicker. On the back of the limbs, to the metacarpals and hocks, the coat is longer.It forms moderate pants on the back of the hips.
COLOR: Black with reddish-brown, brown, yellow to light gray tan. Solid black or solid gray. Zoning grays show off black shabrack and mask. Not striking, small white marks on the chest, as well as a very light color on the inner surfaces are acceptable, but not desirable. The nose should be black in all colors. Dogs with no mask, bright eyes, as well as whitish tan marks on the chest and internal surfaces, pale claws and a red tail end, are considered as individuals with insufficient pigmentation. The undercoat is light gray. White color is not allowed.
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT:
Males: height at the withers 60 - 65 cm,
Weight 30 - 40 kg.
Bitches: height at withers 55-60 cm,
weight 22 - 32 kg.
The oblique length of the body is approximately 10-17% greater than the height at the withers.
DEFECTS: Any deviation from the above points should be considered as a flaw or vice depending on the severity.
- Any deviation from the breed characteristics described above that affects the dog’s ability to work.
- Ear defects: ears set too low, soft ends, ears directed towards each other. Oscillating ears.
- Serious disadvantages of pigmentation.
- Serious deviations from the strong type of addition.
- Defects in the dental system: all deviations from the scissor bite and the correct dental formula, if they are not included in the disqualifying defects listed below.
- Weak temperament and nervous system, biting dog.
- Dogs with deformed ears or tail.
- Dogs with malformations.
- Dogs lacking the following teeth:
- One third premolar (P3) plus one additional tooth, or one canine, or one fourth premolar (P4), or one first or second molar (M1 or M2), or a total of three or more missing teeth.
- Dogs with jaw defects, undershot more than 2 mm, a bite is a direct bite formed by all 12 incisors.
- Deviation from standard growth up or down more than 1 cm.
- White shirt (even with dark eyes and claws).
- Long integumentary hair (long, soft, not smoothly fitting integumentary hair with undercoat, ridges behind the ears and legs, fluffy pants and a fluffy tail with a pendant - Langstockhaar).
- Long hair (long, soft integumentary hair without undercoat, mostly breaking up into a parting in the middle of the back, restroom hair on the ears, legs and tail - Langhaar).
NOTE: Male animals must have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.